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Created on 2012-06-25 04:25:09 (#1653739), last updated 2012-06-25 (268 weeks ago)

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Name:m_isformaximum
Birthdate:Apr 1
Max Guevara was born April 1st, 2001, age 22. She comes from the future in 2020, Seattle, Washington USA. Twin to Sam X-453
Max's barcode number is 332960073452, she works as a Jam Pony Messenger. Mun is 18 years old, plus.

Cannibal's Hymn by Nick Cave

You have a heart and I have a key
Lie back and let me unlock you
Those heathens you hang with down by the sea
All they want to do is defrock you
I know a river, where we can dream
It will swell up, burst it's banks,
babe, and rock you
But if you're gonna dine with them cannibals
Sooner or later, darling, you're gonna get eaten
But I'm glad you've come around
here with your animals
And your heart that is bruised but unbeaten
And beating like a drum

I will sit like a bird on a fence
Sing you songs with a happy ending
Swoop down and tell you that it don't make sense
To attack the very thing you're defending
Didn't I just buy that dress for you?
That pink paper pinafore that you keep mending
Well, if you're gonna dine with the cannibals
Sooner or later, darling, you're gonna get eaten
But I'm glad you've come around
here with your animals
And your heart that is banging and beating
And banging like a gong

I can see that they've hurt you, dear
Here is some moonlight to cloak us
And I will never desert you here
Unpetaled among the crocus
Allow me, my love, to allay your fear
As I swim, in and out of focus
But if you're gonna dine with the cannibals
Sooner or later, darling, you're gonna get eaten
But I'm glad you've come around
here with your animals
And your heart that is bruised but bleating
And bleeding like a lamb
Banging like a gong
Beating like a drum

*I am not Jessica Alba, Nor am I, Max Guevara or Dark Angel. I do not own the rights to the character. This is for fun, not profit.

Max Guevara from Dark Angel. Post Freak Nation, after taking over Terminal City and sticking around to make sure the Nomalies, and super soldiers get along with the humans. She is their leader, their Messiah. She needs to get away.

Known Aliases: Rachel Glasser, Linda Eastman, Whitney Mann
Barcode: 332960073452 (X5-452)
Date of Birth: Unknown (possibly 01.04.00)
Pretendy Fun B day- April First AKA April Fool's day, because it seems appropriate.

Drives a Ninja, 650 Black.
Max wasn't born, she was made. As part of a military project to create genetically enhanced commandos, she was brought up and trained as a soldier. A conflict at the facility resulted in the escape of a number of the prototypes. Max was one of them. While trying to evade her creator, she tries to find her brothers and sisters, hoping that will add the missing pieces in her life.

DETAILS
Full name: Guevara, Max - See surveillance photos, her year, 2021, going on 2022, and soon she will be 22.
A.K.A.: Maxie, X5 452, Maxy, Rachel Glasser, Max Stark
Status: Alive
Location: Seattle
Residence: Unknown
D.o.B: 2000.10.041, 2001.09.272
P.o.B: Manticore facility, Gillette Wyoming (Officially Vivadyne Labs)
Species Genetically engineered super soldier, X 5

Nationality: American
Age: 20/21
Sex: Female
Eyes: Brown
Hair: Brown
Height: 5' 6.
Weight: 115 lbs
Scars & Marks: Barcode on neck: 332960073452/ Symbols that cover 9/10ths of her body, genetically manipulated to appear in her DNA.
Occupation: Bike Messenger at Jam Pony X-press
Affiliation Eyes Only, Transgenic army, formerly Manticore.
Notable Powers:
Cat DNA gives her the ability to jump to 12 feet, see at night and selectively zoom in on things that are at a distance.
Enhanced strength and agility
(Eidetic memory)~Exceptional memory — can remember a long telephone number after merely hearing it dial in.
Temporarily received even better strength and agility and an ability to not feel pain.
She is much faster, stronger, and smarter than average.
Her DNA contains no Junk and every strand is encoded, also a message was encoded into her DNA and came out in the form of sigils all over her body. Calling her the Messiah.
Max's blood is type O, people with this blood type are called "universal donors" because they can give blood to anyone, regardless of the recipients blood type.
All the kids in Manticore had a number inserted into there genetic patterns that shows up as a barcode on the back of the neck. Max's barcode number is 332960073452.

Portrayed by Jessica Alba, Geneva Locke


Important info: Max has sigils AKA runes all over her arms, hands, back, chest. They were incorporated into her DNA like her barcode. Since Sandeman was never found, they have yet to solve the riddle. She covers most of them up but sometimes its hard to not notice.

She can count cards, tell you a telephone number by hearing it dialed on speed dial, she can tell you what number the ball will land on the craps table. She can walk across a line with no support, like a cat, she can see very long distances with her cat's eye, she has the feline DNA and no junk in them (everything is encoded to something), she used to have seizures, but when she got a new heart, they fixed that issue also.

She has a genetically implanted virus that was fixed in the Skin Game book that was transfixed on her love, Logan Cale AKA "Eyes Only".

She is a cat burglar.
She can lift a 300 pound man clean with no jerk, by the neck and using one hand. She can knock a person down without breaking a sweat.
She can stay underwater for a very long period of time.
She can jump out of a tall building's window and land on her feet(from a minimum of 20feet).
She can do many tricks on her Ninja 650 motorcycle and her bicycle(like pull the bike up onto one wheel, which usually takes a man's upper body strength to achieve).
She has a heat cycle that happens three times a year (a pregnancy might take up to nine weeks, due to feline DNA), where she will flirt with any guy and try to take one home, even if she is in love with someone else.
She despises guns and will disarm a man with a gun when then try and use it(It was from seeing Eve being taken down with a gun to protect her because of her seizures, this was the catalyst for the children to escape).
She can enter a room so silently that the people in the apartment don't hear her until she says something.
She can leap and jump from one place to another with agility, speed and grace akin to a cat.
She loves children.
She has an awesome sense of self.
She learned to be the hero by working with Logan Cale and doing jobs for him.
She can break handcuffs after rubbing them across metal and then pulling.
She can gnaw through plastic handcuffs.
She can pretend to hang herself by the neck by holding herself up by her hands. She can climb without use of any equipment.
She is bitchy, mean and also very sad, unhappy that her brethren are being hunted and murdered, she tries to prevent that. Especially since it was she who let them out of Manticore.
She is a softy at heart, but puts on a very brave face.
Her genes were designed so that she would be absolutely gorgeous. She passes it off when people tell her that, as it just being the DNA they gave her.
She can be selfish and nasty, but when prodded will do the right thing.


The Manticore is a legendary creature possessing the following chimera-like features:

The head of a man, with horns, gray eyes, three rows of iron shark-like teeth, and a loud, trumpet/pipe-like roar.
The body of a (sometimes albeit horse-sized) lion, often covered in red fur.
The tail of a dragon or scorpion, which may shoot venomous spines or hairs to incapacitate prey. Note how porcupines and tarantulas are erroneously associated with this behavior.
The Manticore may also be depicted with wings.


From Wikipedia: Max and twelve other children who were part of a group called "X5" escaped from Manticore in early 2009, and were forced to split up. Max was picked up by a woman named Hanna, who took her to her house, then went to find someplace safe for her. While Hanna was out, Max snuck out to stay on the move to avoid Lydecker, the head of Manticore, who is looking to recapture or kill all of the escaped children.
For a while after Max escaped, she was staying with a foster family, until she discovered that her foster father drank a lot and became abusive toward her foster sister, Lucy. She has always felt guilty for not doing anything to improve the situation, but as Manticore trained her to only engage the enemy if she knew she could win, so instead she ran away after the pulse hit.
Max was currently living in an abandoned building with a friend named Kendra in Seattle. They have to buy off a cop named Walter to avoid being reported as squatters, but Max makes up for it by spitting in the coffee she gives him when he comes to collect.
Max has a day job with Jam Pony Messengers delivering messages around town, and steals from rich people at night to pay a private detective to track down her Manticore siblings. One night she broke into the house of Logan Cale, who she discovered is the cyber journalist "Eyes Only." Logan discovered who and what she is, and tracked her down to try to help him fight for justice. Max was reluctant at first, but helps him occasionally in exchange for information on the other children created by Manticore.



From Wikipedia
Contents [hide]
1 Origin
2 Legacy
3 Appearance in Fiction
3.1 Comics
3.2 Film
3.3 Games
3.4 Music
3.5 Literature
3.6 Television
3.7 Other
4 References

Origin
The manticore was of Persian origin, where its name was "man-eater" (from early Middle Persian martya "man" (as in human) and xwar- "to eat"). The English term "manticore" was borrowed from Latin mantichora, itself borrowed from Greek mantikhoras—an erroneous pronunciation of the original Persian name. It passed into European mythology first through a remark by Ctesias, a Greek physician at the Persian court of King Artaxerxes II in the fourth century BC, in his notes on India ("Indika"), which circulated among Greek writers on natural history, but have not survived.

The Romanized Greek Pausanias, in his Description of Greece, recalled strange animals he had seen at Rome and commented,

“ The beast described by Ctesias in his Indian history, which he says is called martichoras by the Indians and "man-eater" by the Greeks, I am inclined to think is the lion. But that it has three rows of teeth along each jaw and spikes at the tip of its tail with which it defends itself at close quarters, while it hurls them like an archer's arrows at more distant enemies; all this is, I think, a false story that the Indians pass on from one to another owing to their excessive dread of the beast. (Description, xxi, 5) ”

Pliny the Elder did not share Pausanias' skepticism. He followed Aristotle's natural history by including the martichoras—mistranscribed as manticorus in his copy of Aristotle and thus passing into European languages—among his descriptions of animals in Naturalis Historia, c. 77 AD.

Pliny's book was widely enjoyed and uncritically believed through the European Middle Ages, during which the manticore was sometimes illustrated in bestiaries. The manticore made a late appearance in heraldry, during the 16th century, and it influenced some Mannerist representations, as in Bronzino's allegory The Exposure of Luxury, (National Gallery, London)[1]— but more often in the decorative schemes called "grotteschi"— of the sin of Fraud, conceived as a monstrous chimera with a beautiful woman's face, and in this way it passed by means of Cesare Ripa's Iconologia into the seventeenth and eighteenth century French conception of a sphinx.


[edit] Legacy
Nowadays, the manticore is said[citation needed] to inhabit the forests of Asia, particularly Indonesia. The manticore can kill instantly with a bite or a scratch and will then eat the victim entirely, bones and all. Whenever a person disappears completely, it is said that the locals consider it the work of the manticore. An authentic Eastern manticore tradition would clearly have to refer to the creature as a "manticore".

The manticore is also known as the "mantícora", the "mantichor", or by a folk etymology, even the "mantiger". Outside occultist circles, the manticore was still an arcane creature in the Western world when Gian Carlo Menotti wrote his ballet The Unicorn, the Gorgon, and the Manticore in 1956

X5's are a fictional group of supersoldiers created by Manticore in the tv show Dark Angel.


[edit] Background
The X5's are part of a military government program to create a generation of super soldiers for use in battle. They are also known as 'transgenics'.

X5's are only one type of super soldier created for the program with other variations starting from the X1 to other series; each one possessing different genetic traits from other animals.

Max Guevara :http://www.jedisaber.com/Dark_Angel/profile/max.htm

Played by: Jessica Alba

Max is a genetically engineered human, created by Manticore, a covert government agency. They created her and several other children to be the ultimate soldier. She has enhanced vision that lets her see in the dark, and "zoom in" on things. She is much faster, stronger, and smarter than average. Max's blood is type O, people with this blood type are called "universal donors" because they can give blood to anyone, regardless of the recipients blood type. Unfortunately, the program messed up and her brain doesn't produce enough seratonin, and she needs to take triptophan pills so that her brain can function at normal levels, without the triptophan supplement, she starts getting seizures, and could go into a comma and die if left untreated. All the kids in Manticore had a number inserted into there genetic patterns that shows up as a barcode on the back of the neck. Max's barcode number is 332960073452.
Max and twelve other children who were part of a group called "X5" escaped from Manticore in early 2009, and were forced to split up. Max was picked up by a woman named Hanna, who took her to her house, then went to find someplace safe for her. While Hanna was out, Max snuck out to stay on the move to avoid Lydecker, the head of Manticore, who is looking to re-capture or kill all of the escaped children.
For a while after Max escaped, she was staying with a foster family, until she discovered that her foster father drank a lot and became abusive toward her foster sister, Lucy. She has always felt guilty for not doing anything to improve the situation, but as Manticore trained her to only engage the enemy if she knew she could win, so instead she ran away after the pulse hit.
Max is currently living in an abandoned building with a friend named Kendra in Seattle. They have to buy off a cop named Walter to avoid being reported as squatters, but Max makes up for it by spitting in the coffee she gives him when he comes to collect.
Max has a day job with Jam Pony Messengers delivering messages around town, and steals from rich people at night to pay a private detective to track down her Manticore siblings. One night she broke into the house of Logan Cale, who she discovered is the cyber journalist "Eyes Only". Logan discovered who and what she is, and tracked her down to try to help him fight for justice. Max was reluctant at first, but helps him occasionally in exchange for information on the other children created by Manticore.
http://www.jedisaber.com/Dark_Angel/profile/max.htm

From Scifipedia:
Max Guevara is a character in James Cameron's science fiction TV series, Dark Angel, played by Jessica Alba. Max is a transgenic super-soldier who, along with others in her group (known as X5), escaped from Manticore. She tries to live a normal life in Seattle, WA, but is constantly pursued by Donald Lydecker (played by John Savage) and Madame X (played by Nana Visitor.
Transgenics is a term for a Genetically Modified Organism (GMO), or an organism whose genetic material has been altered. Typically this is done through a process called recombinant DNA technology, where the DNA from one organism is inserted into another organism.
Dark Angel is an American cyberpunk science fiction television program, created by James Cameron and Charles H. Eglee, which ran from 2000 to 2002 on the FOX network. The show starred Jessica Alba as Max, a genetically-enhanced supersoldier spliced with feline DNA who searches for others of her kind, while trying to lead some semblance of a normal life.

The program was set in Seattle, Washington, but actually filmed in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada at Lions Gate Studios.

Contents [hide]
1 Setting
2 Episodes
3 Cancellation
3.1 Possible renewal
4 Plot synopsis
4.1 Season one
4.2 Season two
5 Cast and characters
6 DVD Releases
6.1 Region 1
6.2 Region 2
7 Trivia
8 Awards
9 Spinoffs
10 External links



[edit] Setting
Spoiler warning: Plot and/or ending details follow.
In the year 2009, a genetically enhanced female child (whom creator James Cameron refers to as "transgenic") super-soldier who calls herself Max Guevara (also known as X5-452), escapes along with 11 others like her, from a secret government institution. At the institution, codenamed Manticore (which lies near Gillette, Wyoming, according to captioning in the pilot and opening credits of the earlier episodes, although the semi-mountainous terrain and dense pine trees shown in the series suggest that it may have been located up to 30 miles from that western plains city), they were created and subsequently raised and trained to be soldiers and assassins. Months after Max's escape, terrorists detonate an electromagnetic pulse weapon in the atmosphere over the U.S., which destroys the vast majority of computer and communication systems, throwing the country into utter chaos.

The first season begins ten years later in 2019. It follows the life of the now 19-year-old Max as she struggles to search for her Manticore brothers and sisters. In a United States which is now barely more than a Third World nation (a concept largely dropped from the show after 9/11), she tries to live her life, to evade capture, and to learn to trust and love. She is aided by Logan Cale, an underground cyber-journalist with the alias Eyes Only, and her friends Original Cindy and Sketchy at Jam Pony, a courier company where she works as a bicycle messenger. Other X-5s are periodically introduced as well.

In the second season of the show, the tone changes as Max brings down Manticore, and frees the soldiers. She is helped in her escape by Joshua, a transgenic with canine DNA, and later learns that he was the first of them made by Manticore's founder Sandeman. Max also finds out that Manitcore produced soldiers for speciality environments such as desert and arctic conditions and consequently look vastly different from normal humans. A major theme in the second season is the discovery of an even more deadly enemy in a millennias-old breeding cult with similar structure to the Illuminati. This has resulted in humans even more formidable than the Manticore-produced transgenics, and even some with strong telekinetic powers. Ames White, a Government Agent met early in the second season trying to eliminate the loose transgenics, is found to be a member of the cult. When a strange message written in Max's genetic code make an appearance on her skin, it is found that Sandeman was a renegade from the breeding cult. Ames White is Sandeman's son, which essentially makes him Max's brother. The series was cancelled before the producers could really play with this dynamic, however.

Spoilers end here.

[edit] Episodes
Main article: List of Dark Angel episodes

[edit] Cancellation
Despite a strong fan base (and a second season finale directed by James Cameron), Dark Angel was cancelled in 2002 after just two seasons due to budget costs and low second season ratings. Avid fans of the show attribute the loss of ratings to a misjudgement on the part of FOX Network for airing the second season on Friday evenings instead of Tuesday evenings. In addition, changes to the format and tone of the series in the second year are also cited as contributing factors to its demise. Many of these changes were unavoidable due to budgetary concerns, departing actors, and 9/11, which forced the show to downplay its post-apocalyptic setting. Initially, a third season appeared to be greenlit, but when Joss Whedon reworked his Firefly pilot, Fox chose Firefly for a Fall slot at the expense of Dark Angel.

Dark Angel, though cancelled, has high availability with on-demand services, and as of July 10, 2006, Sci-Fi Channel has started airing repeats of the two seasons.


[edit] Possible renewal
During April of 2006, Fox held a poll on their broadcasting website asking, "Now we've brought back Family Guy for another series, which of these would you like to see resurrected for another series?" Among the choices were Dark Angel, Tru Calling, Angel, Futurama, and Buffy the Vampire Slayer.

The poll started mid-April, and ended during the beginning of May.

At the conclusion of Fox's poll, Dark Angel ended up winning with 34.5% votes, with Tru Calling at 28.1% behind it. No word as of yet has been announced by Fox whether they will renew the series or not. If it is renewed, however, there is no telling whether or not Jessica Alba would reclaim the role of Max.


[edit] Plot synopsis
This section talks about the plot of Dark Angel.

Spoiler warning: Plot and/or ending details follow.

[edit] Season one

Jessica Alba as Max.In the first season, per James Cameron’s directing, the show revolves more around Max’s super-human abilities as a transgenic and revved-up soldier. While Max is still portrayed as a “different” young woman trying to lead some semblance of a normal life, viewers get more of a sense of Max’s Manticore-endowed, superior abilities (i.e. the abilities to see objects and hear conversations from afar, leap very high, outrun enemies, overpower most other human beings, etc.) and to some extent, her transgenic burdens (the constant need for tryptophan pills and the uncontrollable feline behavior related to going into heat). Also, Max’s main priority is to find her other eleven siblings, with whom she escaped as a child in 2009, and evade capture by her Manticore enemies. Season one has more of a run-and-hide tone to it than season two. Season one focuses on all of Max’s unique abilities (and strongly emphasizes them) as a genetically engineered powerhouse because she is only one of twelve Manticore escapees and also because Dark Angel was trying to establish itself in the TV Sci-Fi world in its infancy and used Max’s abilities to reel in the attention. In addition to the aforementioned features, Dark Angel Season One concerns Manticore’s use of super soldiers that resembled normal human beings. There are some characters stronger than or as strong as Max, but these characters look and act (somewhat) just like normal human beings. Max only has to worry about one party that wants her ensnared for good – Lydecker, who represents the Manticore Corporation as a whole. However, Max did occasionally have to contend with a Manticore competitor, Red Series, that also sought to capture her. In regards to the setting, there is much more of a Third World Country feel to the show and it is easy to ascertain the daily struggles that most post-pulse Seattle-dwellers encounter, especially when Walter (the corrupt police officer and secret boyfriend of Kendra’s) puts a strain on Max and Kendra’s living situation in regards to the bribes he requires to not report their squatting.


[edit] Season two
With the destruction of the Manticore facility, escapees are resurfacing in large numbers. Going beyond the transgenic soldiers seen before (with enhanced speed, strength, and reflexes, and combat training), new soldiers are seen with other abilities, somewhat similar to those seen in superhero comics. This leads to a "freak of the week" premise, where soldiers bred for more specific purposes make appearances, which includes a character specializing in heuristics (although his abilities are more akin to precognition), characters bred for aquatic missions (they have gills and can breathe underwater). Max also meets Joshua, the first transgenic ever created, who has dog-like facial features, strength enormous even by transgenic standards, and is the only one who lacks a barcode. He also becomes a recurring character. This leads to much more comic situations and a much lighter hearted feel, coupled with the addition of Alec, the wisecracking supersoldier and comic foil to the level-headed Max. Other main characters undergo fairly drastic changes, such as Logan losing some of the angst related to his condition (he can now walk with mechanical assistance) and Max's no longer needing tryptophan, and Max can no longer touch Logan without killing him because when she was back at Manticore they injected her with a virus which was genetically engineered to Eyes Only's (Logan's) DNA. The show also adds elements of a mysterious cult and prophecies, which remain unresolved with the conclusion of the series.

Spoilers end here.

The term electromagnetic pulse (EMP) has the following meanings: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetic_pulse

electromagnetic radiation from an explosion (especially a nuclear explosion) or an intensely fluctuating magnetic field caused by Compton-recoil electrons and photoelectrons from photons scattered in the materials of the electronic or explosive device or in a surrounding medium. The resulting electric and magnetic fields may couple with electrical/electronic systems to produce damaging current and voltage surges. See Electromagnetic bomb for details on the damages resulting to electronic devices. The effects are usually not noticeable beyond the blast radius unless the device is nuclear or specifically designed to produce an electromagnetic shockwave.
A broadband, high-intensity, short-duration burst of electromagnetic energy.
In the case of a nuclear detonation or an asteroid impact, the electromagnetic pulse consists of a continuous frequency spectrum. Most of the energy is distributed throughout the lower frequencies between 3 Hz and 30 kHz. [1]

In works of fiction, EMP has made many appearances, particularly in science fiction. In the cyberpunk sub-genre, EMP is often portrayed as a superweapon that distorts social order by destroying technological artifacts central to a society, or as a potent weapon against mechanical or robotic enemies. See Electromagnetic pulse in fiction.

Contents [hide]
1 Practical considerations
1.1 Weapon altitude
1.2 Weapon yield
1.3 Weapon distance
2 Non-nuclear electromagnetic pulse
3 Modern scenarios
4 Popular culture
5 References
6 See also
7 External links
[edit] Practical considerations

The mechanism for a 400 km high altitude burst EMP: gamma rays hit the atmosphere between 20–40 km altitude, ejecting electrons which are then deflected sideways by the earth's magnetic field. This makes the electrons radiate EMP over a massive area. Because of the curvature of earth's magnetic field over the USA, the maximum EMP occurs south of the detonation and the minimum occurs to the north.The worst of the pulse lasts for only a second, but any unprotected electrical equipment — and anything connected to electrical cables, which act as giant lightning rods or antennae — will be affected by the pulse. Older, vacuum tube (valve) based equipment is much less vulnerable to EMP; Soviet Cold War–era military aircraft often had avionics based on vacuum tubes. There are a number of websites that explore methods for protecting equipment in the home or business from the effects of an EMP attack.

It is important to note that many nuclear detonations have taken place using bombs dropped by aircraft. The aircraft that delivered the atomic weapons at Hiroshima and Nagasaki did not fall out of the sky due to damage to their electrical or electronic systems. This is simply because electrons (ejected from the air by gamma rays) are stopped quickly in normal air for bursts below 10 km, so they do not get a chance to be significantly deflected by the Earth's magnetic field (the deflection causes the powerful EMP seen in high altitude bursts), but it does point out the limited use of smaller burst altitudes for widespread EMP.[citation needed]

If the B-29 planes had been within the intense nuclear radiation zone when the bombs exploded over Hiroshima and Nagasaki, then they would have suffered effects from the charge separation (radial) EMP. But this only occurs within the severe blast radius for detonations below about 10 km altitude. EMP disruptions were suffered aboard KC-135 photographic aircraft flying 300 km from the 410 kt Bluegill and 410 kt Kingfish detonations (48 and 95 km burst altitude, respectively) in 1962 [1], but the vital aircraft electronics then were far less sophisticated than today and did not crash the aircraft.

Several major factors control the effectiveness of an EMP weapon. These are:

The altitude of the weapon when detonated;
The yield of the weapon;
The distance from the weapon when detonated;
Geographical depth or intervening geographical features.
Beyond a certain altitude a nuclear weapon will not produce any EMP, as the gamma rays will have had sufficient distance to disperse. In deep space or on worlds with no magnetic field (the moon or Mars for example) there will be little or no EMP. This has implications for certain kinds of nuclear rocket engines. See Project Orion.



[edit] Weapon altitude

How the peak EMP on the ground varies with the weapon yield and burst altitude. Note that the yield here is the prompt gamma ray output measured in kilotons. This varies from 0.115–0.5% of the total weapon yield, depending on weapon design. The 1.4 Mt total yield 1962 Starfish Prime test had an output of 0.1%, hence 1.4 kt of prompt gamma rays. (The blue 'pre-ionisation' curve applies to certain types of thermonuclear weapon, where gamma and x-rays from the primary fission stage ionise the atmosphere and make it electrically conductive before the main pulse from the thermonuclear stage. The pre-ionisation in some situations can literally short out part of the final EMP, by allowing a conduction current to immediately oppose the Compton current of electrons.)According to an internet primer published by the Federation of American Scientists[2]

A high-altitude nuclear detonation produces an immediate flux of gamma rays from the nuclear reactions within the device. These photons in turn produce high energy free electrons by Compton scattering at altitudes between (roughly) 20 and 40 km. These electrons are then trapped in the Earth's magnetic field, giving rise to an oscillating electric current. This current is asymmetric in general and gives rise to a rapidly rising radiated electromagnetic field called an electromagnetic pulse (EMP). Because the electrons are trapped essentially simultaneously, a very large electromagnetic source radiates coherently.
The pulse can easily span continent-sized areas, and this radiation can affect systems on land, sea, and air. The first recorded EMP incident accompanied a high-altitude nuclear test over the South Pacific and resulted in power system failures as far away as Hawaii. A large device detonated at 400–500 km (250 to 312 miles) over Kansas would affect all of CONUS. The signal from such an event extends to the visual horizon as seen from the burst point.
Thus, for equipment to be affected, the weapon needs to be above the visual horizon. Because of the nature of the pulse as a large, long, high powered, noisy spike, it is doubtful that there would be much protection if the explosion were seen in the sky just below the tops of hills or mountains. The circumstances inside the bottom of deeper valleys may be different, and locations with a large mountain range in-between (such as the Rocky Mountains) likely have some protection.[citation needed] Thus a weapon detonated high over Kansas might have only indirect effects on the US West Coast.[citation needed]

The altitude indicated above is greater than that of the International Space Station and many low Earth orbit satellites. Large weapons could have a dramatic impact on satellite operations and communications; smaller weapons have less such potential.


[edit] Weapon yield
Typical nuclear weapon yields quoted in such scenarios are in the range of 20 megatons. This is roughly 1,000 times the sizes of the weapons the United States used in Japan at Hiroshima and Nagasaki.


[edit] Weapon distance
The major energy in an EMP is electromagnetic, and radiates out from the point of detonation in a sphere. EMP is electromagnetic radiation. The intensity of these fields decreases in proportion to the circumference and distance from explosion. The actual amount of EMP energy deposited per unit area is entirely different, and that falls off as the inverse-square of distance.


How the area affected depends on the burst altitude.Radius in Miles Circumference Relative Strength
10 62.83 100% or 1
20 125.66 50% or 1/2
30 188.50 33.3% or 1/3
40 251.32 25% or 1/4
The range of deposition of gamma rays in the atmosphere is assumed to be 10 miles, which is appropriate for a 1 megaton burst at an altitude of about 10 miles. The size of the perimeter of this circle grows in proportion to the radius of the circle, and so the electric field strength weakens as the circle grows. By simple mathematics the electric field strength does not fall as the inverse square law, but is instead a simple inverse linear relationship.

The range of deposition of gamma rays would be smaller for a surface burst because of the greater air density, which shields the initial gamma rays that cause the EMP. Conversely, for a burst at greater altitudes, the range of the deposition would be far greater than 10 miles, because the gamma rays could travel much further in the low density air before being stopped. The actual energy deposited per unit area, if emitted from an isotropic point source, is always governed by the inverse-square law.

But the damaging effect of EMP is determined largely by the peak electric field (measured in volts/metre), which falls only inversely with distance. The amount of EMP energy passing through a unit of area is proportional to the square of the field strength. Within the range of gamma ray deposition, these simple laws no longer hold as the air is ionised and there are other EMP effects such as a radial (non-radiated) electric field due to the separation of Compton electrons from air molecules, and other complex phenomena.


[edit] Non-nuclear electromagnetic pulse
Non-nuclear electromagnetic pulse (NNEMP) is an electromagnetic pulse generated without use of nuclear weapons. There are a number of devices to achieve this objective, ranging from a large low-inductance capacitor bank discharged into a single-loop antenna or a microwave generator to an explosively pumped flux compression generator. To achieve the frequency characteristics of the pulse needed for optimal coupling into the target, wave-shaping circuits and/or microwave generators are added between the pulse source and the antenna. A vacuum tube particularly suitable for microwave conversion of high energy pulses is the vircator.

NNEMP generators can be carried as a payload of bombs and cruise missiles, allowing construction of electromagnetic bombs with diminished mechanical, thermal and ionizing radiation effects and without the political consequences of deploying nuclear weapons.

NNEMP generators also include large structures built to generate EMP for testing of electronics to determine how well it survives EMP.[citation needed] In addition, the use of ultra-wideband radars can generate EMP in areas immediately adjacent to the radar;[citation needed] this phenomenon is only partly understood.[citation needed]


[edit] Modern scenarios
Typical modern scenarios seen in news accounts speculate about the use of nuclear weapons by rogue states or terrorists in an attack on the United States. These typically involve weapons similar to those used over Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Aerial detonation would require the use of aircraft, or surface launched missiles of limited range (typically a range 100 to 300 miles). The scenarios have the detonations typically occurring within the earth's atmosphere, and likely relatively close to the ground (within a dozen or so miles).

This would limit the EMP effect because the altitude of the explosion would be much lower than that needed to be above the visual horizon of the entire United States. Also, the power of the weapons would typically be hundreds if not thousands of times smaller than optimum, and thus the effect would be significantly smaller than that of a larger weapon.

However, the EMP at a fixed distance from a nuclear weapon does not depend directly on the yield but at most only increases as the square root of the yield (see illustration above). This means that although a 10 kt weapon has only 0.7% of the total energy release of the 1.4 Mt Starfish Prime test, the EMP will be at least 8% as powerful. Since the EMP depends on the prompt gamma ray output, which was only 0.1% of yield in Starfish Prime but can be 0.5% of yield in pure fission weapons of low yield, a 10 kt bomb can easily be 5 x 8% = 40% as powerful as the 1.4 Mt Starfish Prime at producing EMP [2].

The total prompt gamma ray energy in a fission explosion is 3.5% of the yield, but in a 10 kt detonation the high explosive around the bomb core absorbs about 85% of the prompt gamma rays, so the output is only about 0.5% of the yield in kilotons. In the thermonuclear Starfish Prime the fission yield was less than 100% to begin with, and then the thicker outer casing absorbed about 95% of the prompt gamma rays from the pusher around the fusion stage. Thermonuclear weapons are also less efficient at producing EMP because the first stage can pre-ionise the air [3], which becomes conductive and hence rapidly shorts out the electron Compton currents generated by the final, larger yield thermonuclear stage. Hence, small pure fission weapons with thin cases are far more efficient at causing EMP than most megaton bombs.

A terrorist EMP attack might profoundly affect any major city. However, since the attacks in the United States of September 11, 2001, many major businesses have relocated valuable assets outside of major urban areas, and have taken other measures to protect themselves. Therefore, the long-term economic and technological impact of such an event might not be as grave as previously imagined, depending on the nature of the original attack.[citation needed]


[edit] Popular culture
Main article: Electromagnetic pulse in fiction
Scenarios depicted in works of fiction, such as science fiction, where small weapons create gigantic effects are not completely accurate, often having been exaggerated for the purposes of artistic license and dramatic effect


[edit] References
^ Federal Standard 1037C in support of MIL-STD-188 and from the Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms
^ http://www.fas.org/nuke/intro/nuke/emp.htm]

[edit] See also
High Energy Radio Frequency weapons (HERF)
Explosively pumped flux compression generator
Transient electromagnetic device
Electromagnetic environment
Electromagnetic propulsion
Electromagnetic bomb
Electromagnetism
Pulsed power

[edit] External links
GlobalSecurity.org – Electromagnetic Pulse: From chaos to a manageable solution
Electromagnetic Pulse: Basic theory; how to protect from
Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) and Tempest Protection for Facilities – U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
EMP data from Starfish nuclear test measured by Richard Wakefield of LANL, and review of evidence pertaining to the effects 1,300 km away in Hawaii, also review of Russian EMP tests of 1962
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetic_pulse"
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